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Phosphate Mining


To meet the continuing world demand for phosphate, we plan to extend existing mines and develop new mines in HardeeManatee and DeSoto counties. By extending existing mining operations onto adjoining properties, we can continue producing phosphate in the area without increasing our water consumption by connecting to existing stormwater and water circulation systems. Extensions also allow us to take advantage of previously approved infrastructure, minimizing the need to build new plants and equipment.

Extended mines and new mining operations undergo exhaustive planning and approval processes to protect air, water, ecology, transportation, safety and other environmental, health and public welfare considerations. After mining, state-approved reclamation programs will result in productive land uses, including enhanced wildlife habitat and recreational opportunities.

How Phosphate is Recovered
Phosphate rock is usually found 15-50 feet beneath the ground in a mixture of phosphate pebbles, sand and clay known as phosphate "matrix." The sandy layer above the matrix, called the overburden, is removed using electrically operated draglines. Equipped with large buckets, these draglines remove the overburden, placing it in the previously mined voids, and excavate the matrix, depositing it into a shallow containment area or slurry pit. There, high-pressure water guns turn the material into a watery mixture called slurry, which is sent through pipelines to a processing facility, referred to as a beneficiation plant, where phosphate rock is physically separated from the sand and clay in the matrix.

At the plant, the slurry is moved through a series of washing stations and vibrating screens that physically separate clay, sand and pebble-sized particles. The separated phosphate pebbles are moved through dewatering tanks and onto an inventory pile via conveyor belt. The clay particles are then pumped through pipelines into storage ponds (clay settling areas) where these particles sink to the bottom. These ponds function as reservoirs and help Mosaic recycle or reuse approximately 90 percent of the water at its phosphate facilities, while also supporting a variety of wildlife.

The smallest particles of sand and phosphate are further separated at a flotation plant. The sand is returned by pipeline to the mine area for use in land reclamation, while the phosphate concentrate is sent to dewatering tanks and then to the inventory pile. The phosphate minerals are then transported by fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly locomotives to a separate fertilizer manufacturing plant to make our finished products.

Water management during the mining process is an extremely important part our operations. To learn more, click here.


Mining Operations

While most of Mosaic's mining operations use dragline machines, some areas use specialized dredges like the one shown here. Mining Operations

The Phosphate Story

Watch The Phosphate Story for a nine-minute view into Mosaic's phosphate mining, fertilizer production, reclamation and stewardship practices in Florida. The Phosphate Story