Performance Indicators - Environmental

G3 Indicator
Materials used by weight or volume

Our business used the following raw materials:

  • Phosphate and potash ore are both used to produce our finished products.
  • Natural gas is consumed primarily to produce ammonia at our Faustina plant, to heat water for our potash solution mines, and to dry finished product.
  • Limestone is used to produce our animal feed products and for process water treatment.
  • Sulfur, a byproduct of oil refineries and natural gas producers, is used to produce sulfuric acid that we react with phosphate rock to make phosphoric acid for our finished products. We use byproduct heat from sulfuric acid production to generate steam that we use in our operations and to generate electricity.
  • Various micronutrients are key ingredients in our "MicroEssentials® product line".
  • We use ammonia in our finished products Diammonium Phosphate (DAP), Monoammonium Phosphate (MAP) and MicroEssentials®, and to neutralize the pH of the stack gases at our Esterhazy potash mine.

Materials Consumed

FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009
Potash Ore (million tonnes) 30.0 30.6 23.3
Phosphate Rock (million tonnes) 15.1 15.7 12.1
Natural Gas (million mmbtu) 13.1 17.6 11.9
Limestone (thousand tonnes) 290 281 192
Sulfur (million tonnes) 3.8 3.9 3.0
Micronutrients (tonnes) 600 1,500 1,900
Ammonia (million tonnes) 1.5 1.5 1.2

Percentage of materials used that are recycled input materials
Sulfur is the most significant recycled raw material in our manufacturing processes. The sulfur we used is recovered from petroleum refineries or natural gas production and recycled in our operations to produce sulfuric acid, which we use to make phosphoric acid, steam and electricity. Sulfur makes up approximately 6% by weight of our total raw materials. We recycle the catalyst used in our sulfuric acid production and recover the vanadium for recycling.

We also use recycled oil as a flotation aid in our phosphate beneficiation process.

Direct energy consumption by primary energy sources
Mosaic Global Direct Energy Consumption By Raw Material

Mosaic's total direct energy consumption includes the fossil fuels required to produce our products, heat our processes and power our equipment, less any electrical power sold offsite. It does not include the electrical power used in our facilities. That electrical power is reported in indicator EN4.

Ninety-eight percent of our total direct energy requirements come from natural gas and sulfur. Our Potash and Phosphates businesses use natural gas to generate thermal energy for drying applications, heating applications and as a hydrogen source for ammonia production. We use sulfur to make sulfuric acid, which we react with phosphate rock to produce phosphoric acid for finished fertilizer products. The manufacture of sulfuric acid generates tremendous amounts of heat, without greenhouse gas emissions, that we use in our plants to power our equipment and provide process heat throughout the plant. We also generate electricity from some of that byproduct heat. The remaining two-percent of our energy comes in the form of petroleum distillates and hydrocarbons.

EN3 - Total Direct Energy Consumption

Total Direct Energy Consumption: Million GJ
Calendar Year 2005 2006 2007 2008
Mosaic United States 95.7 81.0 86.3 74.0
Mosaic North America 111.0 95.5 103.1 90.9
Mosaic Worldwide - n/a - - n/a - - n/a - 92.2

N/A = Not Available

We have been working to improve energy efficiency in our processes. Since 2005, Mosaic's U.S. operations have reduced total direct energy consumption by 23%.

We have announced plans to expand our potash production and we expect those expansions to increase our total energy use in the coming years. Mosaic's Potash team is working to ensure that energy will continue to be used efficiently as we increase our production.

Indirect energy consumption by primary energy sources
EN4 - Total Indirect Energy Consumption

Mosaic's indirect energy consumption includes only electrical power provided by third parties. That electrical energy is used to power things like office buildings and process equipment. The types of fossil fuels and renewable energy sources that provide that power are largely driven by the plant's geography and local utility company. For example, in Brazil nearly 100% of our power comes from hydroelectric sources. In Florida, over 50% of the electricity required for our Phosphate operations is provided by cogeneration from our sulfuric acid plants. In fact, the Phosphate business unit has gone as far as running power lines from our chemical plants to our mines to take advantage of excess cogeneration power available. Not only does this arrangement produce significant operational savings, it reduces the amount of third party, fossil-fuel based electrical power that is required for our operations. Our cogeneration is generated from our waste heat recovery systems without fossil fuel combustion or greenhouse gas emissions.

Total Indirect Energy Consumption: Million GJ
Calendar Year 2005 2006 2007 2008
Mosaic United States 8.7 7.0 7.4 7.1
Mosaic North America 11.2 10.0 10.8 10.6
Mosaic Worldwide - n/a - - n/a - - n/a - 10.7

Energy saved due to conservation and efficiency improvements
Energy conservation is a priority at Mosaic. We have been modifying our processes, upgrading our equipment, and training our people on the importance of reducing energy use. Mining and manufacturing will always be energy intensive, but Mosaic is committed to making significant strides to improve our power generation capabilities, reduce the amount of electrical power we consume, and get greater efficiency out of our natural gas use.

Recent conservation and efficiency improvements:

  • Installed adjustable speed drives on motors powering our pumps and fans, allowing for better energy efficiency.
  • Installed energy efficient lighting in plants and office buildings.
  • Standardized on National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Premium® energy efficiency motors and motor circuit evaluation (MCE) testing to remove inefficient motors from service.
North America:
  • Potash:
    • Added a 30 megawatt co-generation unit at Belle Plaine.
    • Optimized product dryers at Colonsay and other sites.
    • Replaced older, less-efficient boilers at Colonsay with a smaller, more efficient unit.
    • Added variable frequency drives in selected applications for increased electric motor efficiencies.
  • Phosphate:
    • Installed high-efficiency filter pans at our Bartow and New Wales plants to reduce dilution and thereby decrease energy required for evaporation.
    • Rebuilt and reconfigured the steam turbines at Bartow, Riverview and South Pierce to improve efficiency and generate more power.
    • Implemented advanced process controls at our Bartow and Riverview facilities to minimize process upsets and reduce power consumption per ton of product.
    • Installed a low-pressure water distribution system at Four Corners, reducing power consumption.
    • Ongoing replacement of old, inefficient wound rotor motors used in our matrix and tailings transport systems with high-efficiency motors.
    • Upgraded the main compressor fans and blower turbines at New Wales and Riverview to reduce steam consumption, thereby increasing power generation.
    • Relocated a turbine generator to New Wales to produce power from excess steam.
    • Installed a low pressure steam line at Riverview to reduce pressure drop, thereby improving power generation.
  • Warehousing:
    • Replaced an old, inefficient furnace with a higher efficiency model in Louisville.
    • Replaced an old, inefficient barge unloading crane at our Henderson facility with a diesel-powered hydraulic excavator.
    • Installed an inert gas purge system on the ammonia system at our Henderson facility to reduce the run time on the compressors and auxiliary equipment.
We have not quantified the energy savings that these and other measures have created.

Initiatives to provide energy –efficient or renewable energy-based products and services
We have taken a series of steps to improve our own energy efficiency, reduce our electricity and natural gas purchases per ton of finished product, and to help farmers be more energy efficient in their own operations. Many of the steps taken to improve our own efficiency are described in EN5. In addition, Mosaic offers services that can provide a competitive advantage for our customers by reducing their energy needs.

Examples of these services include:
  • Yield Potential Maps and Variable Rate Nutrient application: These services allow a farmer to apply fertilizer with fewer passes over the field, reducing the amount of fuel that the farm equipment uses. With In FieldInSite™ (, maps are created with satellite imagery and tractor-mounted sensors guide targeted field work. These tools also help ensure that areas receive the optimal amount of fertilizer, reducing waste.
  • Satellite Derived Management Zones: This is a tool that identifies representative areas in a field from satellite imagery, reducing the need to drive soil-testing equipment across the field and allowing for more targeted, efficient testing.
  • MicroEssentials® (MES): MES fertilizer products include more nutrients, and a higher nutrient content, per ton of fertilizer than traditional blends. That means that less product is needed, requiring less fuel to ship, deliver and apply the nutrients to the field.
  • K-Mag® delivers Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg) and Sulfur (S) in a single granule, reducing the need for fertilizer blends.

Initiatives to reduce indirect energy consumption and reductions achieved
Total water withdrawal by source
Our water withdrawals come primarily from groundwater and surface water.

Water Used (000 m3)
Phosphates, Potash, Offshore totals CY2005 CY2006 CY2007 CY2008
Ground water 71,891 55,812 61,682 67,678
Surface water 199,502 181,391 209,891 216,541
Municipal, desalinated, industrial water (Brazil) 236 124 121 137
Total water withdrawn 271,629 237,327 271,674 384,356

Water sources significantly affected by withdrawal of water.
Our Cubatao facility is licensed to withdraw up to 82,080 m3/yr from Afluente do Rio Pereque, a nearby water body. If we were to withdraw the entire permitted amount it would represent 24% of the average water flow used at this facility.

Our actual withdrawals from the Afluente do Rio Pereque have been considerably less than the full permitted amount:

CY2005 49,038 m3
CY2006 32,158 m3
CY2007 33,279 m3
CY2008 5,182 m3

No other water sources are significantly affected by our withdrawals.
Percentage and total volume of water recycled and reused
For calendar year 2008, 84.6% of the total water requirements of our Potash operations were met with recycled and reused water. Our Phosphate operations satisfied 95% of their total water requirements from recycled and reused water.
Location and size of land owned, leased, managed in or adjacent to protected areas and areas of high biodiversity value outside protected areas
As of May 31, 2009, Mosaic owned or had mineral rights to approximately 328,000 acres of land in Florida related to our phosphate mining operations. Approximately 17 % of Mosaic’s land holdings are either in the permitting process or have not yet entered the permitting process. For each permit, Mosaic works with a team of professional biologists, hydrologists and other specialists, and with as many as 12 local, regional, state and federal regulatory agencies to identify areas of high environmental sensitivity that should be protected or that can be reclaimed successfully.

As of May 31, 2009, Mosaic owns 16,588 acres on which it has placed a recorded conservation easement to ensure the long-term protection of lands or waters of particular sensitivity.

We have not yet determined whether this indicator would apply to any land outside of our U.S. and Canadian operations.
Description of significant impacts of activities, products and services on biodiversity in protected areas and areas of high biodiversity value outside protected areas
Phosphate mining in Florida represents our largest land impact and is heavily regulated by as many as 12 local, regional, state and federal permitting authorities. This robust regulatory oversight, combined with areas that are set aside from mining, reclamation practices that we believe to be best in class and monitoring activities such as the Horse Creek Stewardship Program protect against any significant impacts on biodiversity either within or outside of our property boundaries.

We have not yet determined whether this indicator would apply to any land outside of our U.S. and Canadian operations.
Habitats protected or restored
In our phosphate mining operations, we restore or reclaim every acre of land that is impacted by our activities, and our permits require us to protect areas of high environmental sensitivity. As part of our land reclamation activities, Mosaic planted 1,650,180 trees during the fiscal year ended May 31, 2009. We rebuild at least one acre of wetland for each acre of wetland that our phosphate mining operations disturb.

FY2008-09 Florida Phosphate Acres Mined and Reclaimed

Land Type Acres Mined Acres Reclaimed
Total 2,213 2,483
Wetland 469 596
Upland forest 417 651

As of May 31, 2009, Mosaic owned 16,588 acres on which we have placed a recorded conservation easement to ensure the long-term protection of lands or waters of particular sensitivity.

Additionally, Mosaic works closely with one of our primary regulators, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection ("FDEP") Bureau of Mining and Minerals Regulation to integrate habitat networks and wildlife corridors into our reclamation planning efforts. The FDEP created and implements an Integrated Habitat Network ("IHN") to benefit the water quality and quantity in the area, improve wildlife habitat and serve as a connection between the mining region's rivers and significant environmental features outside the mining region.

Strategies, current actions, and future plans for managing impacts on biodiversity
Mosaic is committed to minimizing our impacts on the environment through responsible mine planning, permitting, operation and reclamation practices. We continually evaluate our performance and incorporate what we learn to improve on the best practices that we strive to employ. In addition, we comply with all federal, state/provincial and local regulatory requirements. Those requirements focus, in part, on protecting biodiversity and often require us to enhance natural biodiversity by creating new habitat areas or permanently protecting integrated habitat networks. Our phosphate mining operations in Florida require the greatest sensitivity to biodiversity and other environmental concerns, and public involvement is a regular part of our permitting activities.

In our Potash facilities located in Saskatchewan, Canada, our approach to evaluating potential impacts to biodiversity includes biological assessments of proposed expansion sites. These assessments include field surveys to identify rare species of plants, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians of special concern that may be impacted. Survey methods followed those recommended by the Saskatchewan Conservation Date Centre. In 2008 we completed a biological assessment for the proposed Phase IV Brine Pond at the Mosaic Potash Esterhazy K2; the biological assessment for the proposed tailing expansion at our Colonsay Mine Site also followed this approach.

For more information on species protection, please read the Environmental section of this Sustainability Report.

Number of IUCN Red lists species and national conservation list species with habitats in areas affected by operations, by level of extinction risk.
Mosaic evaluates potential impacts on plant and animal species based on those protected by applicable local, state, and federal regulations, and does not track IUCN Red List data.

The area near our Florida phosphate mining operations is home to species listed by federal or state authorities as endangered, threatened or of special concern. Potential impacts have been comprehensively evaluated for each potential mining area. Wildlife agencies have determined that operations would have no impact on those species, or that impacts could be mitigated by minimizing operations in sensitive habitats, creating new habitats for relocation and raising awareness of potential impacts among workers. In our Potash business unit, the rare and endangered species are evaluated as part of our biological assessments for expansion projects.

We have not yet determined whether this indicator would apply to any land outside of our U.S. and Canadian operations

Emissions, Effluents and Waste
Total direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions by weight

Mosaic Greenhouse Gas Emissions – CY2008
Direct emissions 2.9 million tonnes
Indirect emissions from purchased electricity 3.3 million tonnes
Total 6.2 million tonnes
Tonnes of CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq.)

GHG emissions are calculated pursuant to the methodology employed by the voluntary US EPA Climate Leaders program, applied to Mosaic's operations.

Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions by weight
Initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reductions achieved
As indicated in EN16, more than half of Mosaic's global greenhouse gas emissions are indirect emissions from the electricity that we buy from third parties. Please see the section on Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Reduction in this Sustainability Report for a discussion of our initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Mosaic has joined the Climate Leaders program of the United States Environmental Protection Agency, a voluntary program to track greenhouse gas emissions and develop reduction strategies and commitments over 3-7 year time frames. Mosaic is currently developing the baseline inventory and data tracking systems to meet data quality requirements under the program.

Emissions of ozone-depleting substances by weight
Mosaic does not produce CFC's, HCFC's, halons, or methyl bromide in any of our operations but there may be small volumes present in refrigeration or air conditioning units or in fire suppressants. Mosaic does not track the volumes of any such substances that may be present. Mosaic engages appropriate outside firms or certified internal technicians for the maintenance of these units and ozone-depleting substances are phased out as required when units are replaced.

Nox Sox and other significant air emissions by type and weight
In 2008, Mosaic's emissions of Criteria Air Pollutants from our operations were as follows:

Criteria Air Pollutants (000 tonnes) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Nitrogen oxides 7.0 6.7 6.6 7.1 6.9
Carbon monoxide 5.4 5.3 6.2 12.0 5.3
Particulates 4.4 4.7 4.0 4.6 4.2
Sulfur dioxide 15.9 17.2 14.6 15.0 14.5
Other Significant Air Emissions (000 tonnes) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Volatile organic compounds 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.4 1.3
Ammonia 6.5 7.7 6.5 8.9 8.0
Fluoride 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.09
Hydrogen sulfide 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3
Sulfuric acid mist 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2

Total water discharge by quality and destination
The following table summarizes the total water surface discharge from our Phosphate operations in Florida and Louisiana. Our Potash and Brazil Operations do not require water surface discharge.

Mosaic Phosphates Business Unit Annual Outfall Discharges (m3)
  CY2004 CY2005 CY2006 CY2007 CY2008
TOTAL 58,073,714,149 53,024,413,945 48,654,156,667 55,664,727,994 51,726,362,562
Mosaic Phosphates Outfall Discharge Annual Phosphorous Loadings (tonnes)
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
TOTAL 3,444 2872 971 637 1137
Mosaic Phosphates Outfall Discharge Annual Nitrogen Loadings (tonnes)
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
TOTAL 2,656 985 318 120 176
Mosaic Phosphates Outfall Discharge Annual TSS Loadings (tonnes)
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
TOTAL 12,798 3,028 1,231 927 1,382
Mosaic Phosphates Outfall Discharge Annual Sulfates Loadings (tonnes)
  2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
TOTAL 81,970 54,466 22,675 24,732 24,820

Total weight of waste by type and disposal method
Mosaic's operations generate a variety of non-hazardous solid wastes including domestic refuse, construction and demolition debris, waste lubricants and spent sand-blast media. Waste streams are properly characterized and disposed of off-site in appropriate landfills or by incineration. Where specifically allowed by permit, some waste streams, such as scale from the production of phosphoric acid and waste sulfur where specifically allowed by permit, are managed by on-site disposal. Recycling programs are established at Mosaic facilities in order to reduce the volume of wastes for disposal. Recycled materials may include fluorescent lamps, used oil, batteries, scrap metal, computer equipment and paper. Volumes of each type of waste have not been historically collected and compiled by Mosaic.

Mosaic also generates by-products from our fertilizer operations. These byproducts are not treated as hazardous under applicable laws. These byproducts include salt and brine from the Potash business unit and phosphogypsum and clay from the Phosphate business unit. The volumes of these byproducts are a function of production rates.

Potash Byproducts (,000 tonnes) Calendar 2005 Calendar 2006 Calendar 2007 Calendar 2008
Brine from production - injection 3,037 2,605 2,796 2,309
Salt to Storage 8,405 7,435 9,429 10,359
Phosphate Byproducts (,000 tonnes) Fiscal 2006 Fiscal 2007 Fiscal 2008 Fiscal 2009
Phosphogypsum to Stacks 12,992 12,257 11,987 9,260
Phosphate Byproducts (,000 tonnes)     CY2007 CY2008
Clay to surface impoundment     13,295 12,578

Total number and volume of significant spills
  FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009
Reportable Quantity Releases (RQ) 27 13 17 14 10

Number of events. These releases were not significant enough to report in our financial statements.

Weight of transported, imported, exported or treated waste deemed hazardous
Mosaic facilities generate only small volumes of hazardous wastes and they are typically non-process related wastes. In the U.S., Mosaic facilities are either Small Quantity or Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generators. The types of hazardous wastes generated typically include spent cleaning solvents, paint-related wastes and some spent laboratory chemicals. Each location has an appropriate hazardous waste management system to ensure that the wastes are properly and safely disposed. The primary method of disposal is incineration. No hazardous wastes are shipped internationally for disposal. The volumes of hazardous wastes are not historically compiled by Mosaic.

Identity, size, protected status and biodiversity value of water bodies and related habitats significantly affected by the reporting organization's discharge of water and runoff
Products and Services
Initiatives to mitigate environmental impacts of products and services and impact
Mosaic has developed tools to be used by Certified Crop Advisors and our customers to help them develop agronomic, economic and environmentally focused nutrient recommendations that meet the standards of the 4R (Right Source; Right Rate; Right Time and Right Place ) nutrient stewardship concept. Those tools include:
  • The Mosaic Fertilizer Recommendation Program
  • Nutrient Allocation Decision Software Tool
  • Blend-It
  • FieldInSite™ -
By using these tools, farmers can reduce the potential for fertilizer runoff and also reduce the fuel used to apply fertilizers. For more information, please see the Agricultural and Environmental sections of this Sustainability Report.

Mosaic has developed The Mosaic Fertilizer Technology Research Centre at The University of Adelaide in Adelaide, Australia. This Centre is focused on developing new products that are more efficient and reduce environmental impact when applied to fields. In addition to the activities at the Centre, Mosaic conducts research on over 300 sites globally through a network of university and contract researchers.

Please click here for more information.
Percentage of products sold and their packing material that are reclaimed by category
Fertilizer products, animal feed ingredients and the products that we manufacture for industrial applications are not able to be reclaimed.
Monetary value of significant fines and total number of non- monetary sanctions for non-compliance with environmental laws and regulations
  FY2005 FY2006 FY2007 FY2008 FY2009
Environmental Fines ($) 352,365 90,226 184,750 79,580 17,075

These fines were not required to be reported in our financial statement and should not be considered significant.

Significant environmental impacts of transporting products and other goods and materials used for the organization's operations, and transporting members of the workforce
Mosaic moves more than 50 million tons of raw materials, work in progress and finished goods each year. Because diesel or a heating oil derivative fuels most of the transportation, the lowest cost option for the customer is often the option that uses the least fuel and has the lowest potential environmental impact.

To compare fuel efficiency, the industry standard is to measure short ton miles per gallon (tons/miles/gallons).

The following chart compares the efficiency of the various modes of transportation that Mosaic uses to move our raw materials, work in progress and finished goods.

Fuel Efficiency Analysis (Tons Miles Traveled per Gallon)

The most fuel efficient transport is by panamax vessels which carry over 50,000 tons of cargo great distances. In North America, cross-gulf (Gulf of Mexico) barges are quite efficient. Conversely, trucks can carry approximately 20 tons and yield only 155 ton miles per gallon.

For Fiscal Year 2008-09, our transportation dollars in North America were divided across modes as follows:

Mosaic Transportation Spend (by Mode)

For that same period, the volume transported was:

Mode Shipments ~Tonnage % Total
Vessel: 300 7,000,000 14%
Barge: 1,500 2,000,000 4%
Rail: 350,000 34,000,000 68%
Truck: 375,000 7,000,000 14%

The vast majority of our truck shipments occur within Florida and are associated with time-sensitive intra-company shipments of sulfur and sulfuric acid and phosphate rock. In addition, the distance traveled in most cases is less than 50 miles, making trucks a generally less expensive and more reliable solution. Mosaic, along with our trucking partners, has implemented a number of fuel-saving initiatives such as automatic engine shut-offs and reduced intra-company truck scaling. We have also invested in faster loading processes to both reduce fuel consumption and total trucks deployed. We also use specialized trailers to increase backhaul usage.

Total environmental protection expenditures and investments by type
The costs are specific to environmental costs within our operations in North America for the fiscal years 2007-2009.

  FY 2007 FY 2008 FY 2009
Phosphates Business Unit 128,344,488 120,504,120 169,839,120
Potash Business Unit 9,241,813 14,233,363 19,105,567

These numbers do not include capital expenditures.